Dr. Thömmes explained the IAA method as follows: Assume a photo is liked 12,425 times on Instagram. “That number alone doesn’t mean much, especially if we want to compare it to another photo,” she said. However, by “controlling reach and time,” she said, “we can determine, for example, that Photo X received 25 percent more likes than audience exposure alone can explain.”

Followers of the National Audubon Society’s Instagram account featured in the study often react to colorful bird species like owls and hummingbirds, said Preeti Desai, director of social media and storytelling for the society.

“We have always found that close-up shots of birds are the most popular with our followers,” said Ms. Desai, not seen in real life. “

Due to its plumage, the frog’s mouth has a knack for blending in with its surroundings. It camouflages itself when it sits on branches. Its name comes from its wide, flattened gap, which, like a marionette, can open wide and is therefore suitable for catching prey. Located primarily in Southeast Asia and Australia, the frogmouth is a somewhat sedentary bird, said Tim Snyder, the curator of birds at Chicago’s Brookfield Zoo, who currently has three tawny frogmouths in his care.

The tan frog’s mouth, which is directed forward – most of the bird’s eyes are on the sides of their head – makes them “more personable” and “more human,” he said.

“You always look angry,” said Mr. Snyder. “The look on their face just looks like they’re always frustrated or angry with you every time they look at you, and that’s just the makeup of the feathers and the way their eyes look and everything. It’s kind of fun. “

Jen Kottyan, bird collection and conservation manager at Maryland Zoo in Baltimore, calls it “dormant bird face.”